Achim J. Lilienthal
Improved Gas Source Localization with a Mobile Robot by Learning Analytical Gas Dispersal Models from Statistical Gas Distribution Maps Using Evolutionary Algorithms
Chapter in Intelligent Systems for Machine Olfaction: Tools and Methodologies, 2011, pp. 249-276.
Abstract: The method presented in this chapter computes an estimate of the location of a single gas source from a set of localized gas sensor measurements. The estimation process consists of three steps. First, a statistical model of the time-averaged gas distribution is estimated in the form of a two-dimensional grid map. In order to compute the gas distribution grid map the Kernel DM algorithm is applied, which carries out spatial integration by convolving localized sensor readings and modeling the information content of the point measurements with a Gaussian kernel. The statistical gas distribution grid map averages out the transitory effects of turbulence and converges to a representation of the time-averaged spatial distribution of a target gas. The second step is to learn the parameters of an analytical model of average gas distribution. Learning is achieved by nonlinear least squares fitting of the analytical model to the statistical gas distribution map using Evolution Strategies (ES), which are a special type of Evolutionary Algorithm (EA). This step provides an analysis of the statistical gas distribution map regarding the airflow conditions and an alternative estimate of the gas source location, i.e. the location predicted by the analytical model in addition to the location of the maximum in the statistical gas distribution map. In the third step, an improved estimate of the gas source position can then be derived by considering the maximum in the statistical gas distribution map, the best fit, as well as the corresponding fitness value. Different methods to select the most truthful estimate are introduced, and a comparison regarding their accuracy is presented, based on a total of 34 hours of gas distribution mapping experiments with a mobile robot. This chapter is an extended version of the conference paper (Lilienthal et al., 2005).
Keywords: Gas sensors, Gas distribution modelling, Statistical Gas Distribution Modelling, Evolution Strategies, Environmental monitoring, Gas source localization.
Paper: [PDF (1.9MB)]
  AUTHOR = {Achim J. Lilienthal},
  TITLE = {Statistical Gas Distribution Modelling using Kernel Methods},
  BOOKTITLE = {Intelligent Systems for Machine Olfaction: Tools and Methodologies},
  PAGES = {249--276},
  PUBLISHER = {{IGI} {G}lobal},
  YEAR = {2011},
  EDITOR = {Evor L. Hines and Mark S. Leeson},
  CHAPTER = {10},
  DOI = {10.4018/978-1-61520-915-6.ch006}