Håkan Almqvist, Martin Magnusson, Todor Stoyanov and Achim J Lilienthal
Improving Point-Cloud Accuracy from a Moving Platform in Field Operations
Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2013.
Abstract: This paper presents a method for improving the quality of distorted 3D point clouds made from a vehicle equipped with a laser scanner moving over uneven terrain. Existing methods that use 3D point-cloud data (for tasks such as mapping, localisation, and object detection) typically assume that each point cloud is accurate. For autonomous robots moving in rough terrain, it is often the case that the vehicle moves a substantial amount during the acquisition of one point cloud, in which case the data will be distorted. The method proposed in this paper is capable of increasing the accuracy of 3D point clouds, without assuming any specific features of the environment (such as planar walls), without resorting to a "stop-scan-go" approach, and without relying on specialised and expensive hardware. Each new point cloud is matched to the previous using normal-distribution-transform (NDT) registration, after which a mini-loop closure is performed with a local, per-scan, graph-based SLAM method. The proposed method increases the accuracy of both the measured platform trajectory and the point cloud. The method is validated on both real-world and simulated data.
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  AUTHOR = {H{\aa}kan Almqvist and Martin Magnusson and Todor Stoyanov and Achim J Lilienthal},
  TITLE = {Improving Point-Cloud Accuracy from a Moving Platform in Field Operations},
  BOOKTITLE = {Proc. IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation},
  YEAR = {2013},
  PAGES = {725--730}